This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. You can view samples of our professional work here. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays. While the Chinese Government emphasizes its achievements of population control in China, the controversial policy has been widely criticized for its negative influences.
I will first briefly introduce the policy, then analyze both the positive and negative impacts with relevant data and statistics, and lastly come to a conclusion. Under the enforced policy, every 2. Phillips 1 Abortion is legal in China and 13 millions of abortions are performed in China every year, which largely exceeds those performed in other countries such as the United States and Canada. Wang Such a preference indirectly leads to sex-selective abortions as female fetuses are usually considered less precious than male ones, especially if the couple is allowed to have only one child.
With fetal screening technologies such as ultrasound, amniocentesis and chorionic villi sampling, the sex of unborn fetuses can be recognized before their birth. Such technologies and available abortions result in the possibility that couples selectively abort female fetuses in the hope of having a son instead. Generally the mortality of male infants is expected to be greater than that of female ones as male infants are biologically weaker than female infants. Recent data has shown that the proportion of women attending college is higher than that of men. The policy also has a positive effect of the policy fines at 10 to 19 years of age on the likelihood of completing senior high school in women of Han ethnicity.
China’s One Child Policy
At the same time, the one-child policy reduces the economic burden for each family. The condition for each family has become better. As a result, women also have much more freedom within the family. They are supported by their family to pursue their life achievements. It is reported that the focus of China on population planning helps provide a better health service for women and a reduction in the risks of death and injury associated with pregnancy.
At family planning offices, women receive free contraception and pre-natal classes that contributed to the policy's success in two respects. First, the average Chinese household expends fewer resources, both in terms of time and money, on children, which gives many Chinese people more money with which to invest.
Second, since Chinese adults can no longer rely on children to care for them in their old age, there is an impetus to save money for the future. As the first generation of law-enforced only-children came of age for becoming parents themselves, one adult child was left with having to provide support for his or her two parents and four grandparents.
Free one child policy Essays and Papers
If not for personal savings, pensions, or state welfare, most senior citizens would be left entirely dependent upon their very small family or neighbours for assistance. If for any reason, the single child is unable to care for their older adult relatives, the oldest generations would face a lack of resources and necessities. In response to such an issue, by , all provinces in the nation except Henan had adopted a new policy allowing couples to have two children if both parents were only children themselves;  [ failed verification ]  Henan followed in Being excluded from the family register means they do not possess a Hukou , which is "an identifying document, similar in some ways to the American social security card.
Some parents may over-indulge their only child. The media referred to the indulged children in one-child families as " little emperors ". No social studies have investigated the ratio of these so-called "over-indulged" children and to what extent they are indulged. With the first generation of children born under the policy which initially became a requirement for most couples with first children born starting in and extending into the s reaching adulthood, such worries were reduced. However, the "little emperor syndrome" and additional expressions, describing the generation of Chinese singletons are very abundant in the Chinese media, Chinese academia and popular discussions.
Being over-indulged, lacking self-discipline and having no adaptive capabilities are traits that are highly associated with Chinese singletons. Some 30 delegates called on the government in the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference in March to abolish the one-child rule, citing "social problems and personality disorders in young people". One statement read, "It is not healthy for children to play only with their parents and be spoiled by them: it is not right to limit the number to two children per family, either.
According to a scholar, "The one-child limit is too extreme. It violates nature's law. And in the long run, this will lead to mother nature's revenge. Reports surfaced of Chinese women giving birth to their second child overseas, a practice known as birth tourism.
Many went to Hong Kong, which is exempt from the one-child policy. Likewise, a Hong Kong passport differs from China's mainland passport by providing additional advantages.
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Recently though, the Hong Kong government has drastically reduced the quota of births set for non-local women in public hospitals. As a result, fees for delivering babies there have surged. As further admission cuts or a total ban on non-local births in Hong Kong are being considered, mainland agencies that arrange for expectant mothers to give birth overseas are predicting a surge in those going to North America. As the United States practises birthright citizenship , all children born in the US will automatically have US citizenship. As of , the island was experiencing an upswing in Chinese births, since birth tourism there had become cheaper than to Hong Kong.
This option is used by relatively affluent Chinese who often have secondary motives as well, wishing their children to be able to leave mainland China when they grow older or bring their parents to the US. Canada , compared to the US, is less achievable as their government denies many visa requests. Due to the preference in Rural Chinese society to give birth to a son,  pre-natal sex determination and sex-selective abortions are illegal in China. This clearly depicts a desire for women to birth a son if one has not yet been birthed. The policy is controversial outside China for many reasons, including accusations of human rights abuses in the implementation of the policy, as well as concerns about negative social consequences.
According to a report by the US Embassy, scholarship published by Chinese scholars and their presentations at the October Beijing conference of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population seemed to suggest that market-based incentives or increasing voluntariness is not morally better but that it is, in the end, more effective.europeschool.com.ua/profiles/xuriqoh/relojes-chico-2020.php
Moral Issues and Concerns about China's One-Child Policy
Paul Schultz of Yale University discussed the effect of the transformation to the market on Chinese fertility, arguing that the introduction of the contract responsibility system in agriculture during the early s weakened family planning controls during that period. By the late s, economic costs and incentives created by the contract system were already reducing the number of children farmers wanted. A long-term experiment in a county in Shanxi, in which the family planning law was suspended, suggested that families would not have many more children even if the law were abolished.
Corrupted government officials and especially wealthy individuals have often been able to violate the policy in spite of fines. Some of the offending officials did not face penalties,  although the government did respond by raising fines and calling on local officials to "expose the celebrities and high-income people who violate the family planning policy and have more than one child". The one-child policy has been challenged for violating a human right to determine the size of one's own proper family.
According to a proclamation of the International Conference on Human Rights, "Parents have a basic human right to determine freely and responsibly the number and the spacing of their children.
According to the UK newspaper The Daily Telegraph , a quota of 20, abortions and sterilizations was set for Huaiji County , Guangdong in one year due to reported disregard of the one-child policy. According to the article local officials were being pressured into purchasing portable ultrasound devices to identify abortion candidates in remote villages. The article also reported that women as far along as 8. Mosher reported that women in their ninth month of pregnancy, or already in labour, were having their children killed whilst in the birth canal or immediately after birth.
According to a news report by Australian Broadcasting Corporation correspondent John Taylor, China outlawed the use of physical force to make a woman submit to an abortion or sterilization in but ineffectively enforces the measure. Chinese authorities have since apologized and two officials were fired, while five others were sanctioned. In the past, China promoted eugenics as part of its population planning policies, but the government has backed away from such policies, as evidenced by China's ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities , which compels the nation to significantly reform its genetic testing laws.
Bush 's presidency, citing human rights abuses  and stating that the right to "found a family" was protected under the Preamble in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
China's One Child Policy Essay example
Sex-selected abortion, abandonment, and infanticide are illegal in China. Nevertheless, the United States Department of State ,  the Parliament of the United Kingdom ,  and the human rights organization Amnesty International  have all declared that infanticide still exists. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation offered the following summary as to the long term effects of sex-selective abortion and abandonment of female infants:. Multiple research studies have also found that sex-selective abortion — where a woman undergoes an ultrasound to determine the sex of her baby, and then aborts it if it's a girl — was widespread for years, particularly for second or subsequent children.
Millions of female fetuses have been aborted since the s. China outlawed sex selective abortions in , but the law is tough to enforce because of the difficulty of proving why a couple decided to have an abortion. The abandonment, and killing, of baby girls has also been reported, though recent research studies say it has become rare, in part due to strict criminal prohibitions.
Anthropologist G. William Skinner at the University of California, Davis and Chinese researcher Yuan Jianhua have claimed that infanticide was fairly common in China before the s. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A Chinese mother and son at a market in Jiayuguan , Gansu. Further information: Demographics of China and Demographic transition.
Further information: Missing women and Missing women of China. Further information: Heihaizi.
See also: Shidu bereavement , a social phenomenon denoting the loss of an only child. Further information: Human rights in China. This section appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture, providing citations to reliable, secondary sources , rather than simply listing appearances.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March China portal. Birth control in China — Population policy and demographic development. London: Routledge. The End of Children?